Abdominal implanted radio transmitters have been widely used in studies of waterbird ecology.

However the  longer handling times and invasiveness of the surgery involved raises important concerns about animal welfare and potential effects on data quality.

Data from 243 female mallards and mallard–grey duck hybrids equipped with implanted radiotransmitters (from two New Zealand study sites) was used to evaluate survival, dispersal, and reproductive effort.

Read the full study in the Wildlife Society Bulletin here.